Reefs at Risk Revisited: threat from marine pollution, 2011

The dataset is a high-resolution 2011 update of the original global analysis, Reefs at Risk: A Map-Based Indicator of Threats to the World’s Coral Reefs, 1998. It evaluates threats to coral reefs from a wide range of human activities, and includes an assessment of climate-related threats to reefs. This dataset includes the threat from marine pollution.

The global dataset is available for download at:

The data can be visualised at:

Data and Resources

Additional Info

Field Value
Last Updated February 25, 2021, 17:48 (UTC)
Created November 2, 2020, 14:10 (UTC)
Region TC
Language eng
Topic Category Environment; environmental resources, protection and conservation
Temporal Extent Start 1998
Temporal Extent End 2011
Dataset Reference Date 2011
Lineage Reefs at Risk Revisited brings together data on the world's coral reefs in a global analysis designed to quantify threats and to map where reefs are at greatest risk of degradation or loss. More than 50 data sources were incorporated into the analysis, including data on bathymetry, land cover, population distribution and growth rate, observations of coral bleaching, and location of human infrastructure. Local threats addressed in the analysis were: coastal development; watershed-based pollution; marine-based pollution and damage; and overfishing and destructive fishing.The four local threats to coral reefs were modelled separately, and later combined in the Reefs at Risk integrated local threat index. The modelling approach is an extension and refinement of that used in previous Reefs at Risk analyses, and benefited from the input from more than 40 coral reef scientists and other experts. For each local threat, sources of stress that could be mapped were identified and combined into a proxy indicator that reflected the degree of threat. These "stressors" include human population density and infrastructure features such as location and size of cities, ports, and hotels, as well as more complex modelled estimates such as sediment inputs from rivers. For each stressor, distance-based rules were developed, such that threat declines as distance from the stressor increases. Thresholds for low, medium, and high threats were developed using available information on observed impacts to coral reefs.
West Longitude -180
South Latitude -50
East Longitude 180
North Latitude 50
Spatial Reference System WGS84
Responsible Organisation Name Hidden (personal data protection)
Contact Mail Address Hidden (personal data protection)
Responsible Party Role Hidden (personal data protection)
Access Limitations Open access
Use Constraints Open
Resource Reference Cite data source as: Burke L, Reytar K, Spalding M and Perry A (2011). Reefs At Risk Revisited. Washington (USA): World Resources Institute. 130 pp. URL:
Data Format shape
Update Frequency not planned
Accuracy 500m
Resource Type Dataset
Metadata Date 2019-12-09
Metadata Point of Contact Hidden (personal data protection)
Contact Consent Contact details hidden